UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Prose Chapter 3 The Ganga (Jawaharlal Nehru)

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Prose Chapter 3 The Ganga (Jawaharlal Nehru)

These Solutions are part of UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English. Here we have given UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Prose Chapter 3 The Ganga (Jawaharlal Nehru).

Comprehension Questions On Paragraphs

In the examination paper, there are asked only two questions from each
paragraph. Given below are some more questions for extra practice. Read the following passages and answer the questions put thereupon :

(1) I have received so much ……..retained or preserved. [From para 1 [2010, 11, 15]]

Question.
1. What is the most precious gift that the author has received from his countrymen?
(वह सबसे मूल्यवान उपहार कौन-सा है जो लेखक को अपने देशवासियों से प्राप्त हुआ है ?)
2. What has overwhelmed the writer of the lesson ?
(किस वस्तु ने इसे पाठ के लेखक को अभिभूत कर दिया है?).
3. What does the author owe to his comrades and colleagues ?
(लेखक अपने सहकर्मियों और साथियों का किस बात का ऋणी है ?)
4. What does the writer hope in the remaining years of his life?
(अपने शेष बचे हुए जीवन में लेखक क्या आशा करता है ?)
5. What is the desire of the writer after his death ?
(मृत्यु के बाद लेखक की क्या इच्छा है ?)
                   Or
How does the writer want his body to be treated after his death ?
(अपनी मृत्यु के बाद लेखक अपने शरीर के साथ कैसा व्यवहार चाहता है ?) ।
6.Where should his ashes be sent in case he dies in a foreign country ?
(यदि उनकी मृत्यु विदेश में हो तो उनकी राख को कहाँ भेजा जाए ?)
                   Or
What does the author wish if he died in a foreign country?
(लेखक की क्या इच्छा है यदि उनकी मृत्यु विदेश में हो ?)
Answer:
1. The most precious gift that the author has received from his countrymen is their love and affection.
(सबसे मूल्यवान उपहार जो लेखक को अपने देशवासियों से प्राप्त हुआ है, वह है उनका प्रेम तथा स्नेह।)
2. The affection of all classes of (UPBoardSolutions.com) Indian people has overwhelmed the writer.
(भारतीय लोगों के सभी वर्गों के व्यक्तियों के स्नेह ने लेखक को अभिभूत कर दिया है। )
3. The author owes deeper debt of gratitude to his comrades and colleagues,because they had been joint partners in great works and in triumphs and sorrows.
(लेखक अपने साथियों और सहकर्मियों के अधिक आभारी हैं, क्योंकि वे सभी महान् कार्यों में तथा विजय एवं दुःखों में उनके सहभागी रहे हैं।)
4. The writer hopes that in the remaining years of his life he would not be unworthy of his people and their affection.
(लेखक आशा करता है कि अपने जीवन के शेष बचे हुए दिनों में वह अपने लोगों के तथा उनके स्नेह के अयोग्य नहीं होगा।)
5. The writer desires that after his death his body should be cremated where he dies..
(लेखक की इच्छा है कि मृत्यु के बाद उनके शरीर का दाह-संस्कार वहीं कर दिया जाए जहाँ वे मरें।)
6. If the author dies in a foreign country, he wishes that his body should be cremated there and his ashes should be sent to Allahabad. (यदि लेखक की मृत्यु विदेश में हो तब उसकी इच्छा है कि उसका शरीर वहीं जला दिया जाए और उसकी राख को इलाहाबाद भेज दिया जाए।)

UP Board Solutions

(2) My desire to have ……………….their flowing waters. [From para 2]

Question.
1. Whose varying moods’, etc. has the author referred to in this passage?
(इस गद्यांश में ‘varying mood’ आदि शब्दों से लेखक ने किस ओर इंगित किया है ?)
2. Why was the author deeply attached to the Ganga ?
(लेखक गंगा से इतना अधिक प्यार क्यों करता था?)
3. Why did Nehru want a handful of his ashes immersed in the Ganga at Allahabad ?
(नेहरू जी अपने शरीर की एक मुट्ठी राख को इलाहाबाद में गंगा में क्यों बहाना चाहते थे ?)
Answer:
1. The author has referred to the varying moods of the rivers Ganga and Jamuna.
(लेखक ने गंगा नदी व जमुना नदी के varying moods की ओर इंगित किया है।)
2. The author was deeply attached to the Ganga because since his childhood he has been watching moods of the Ganga and Jamuna. As the seasons changed he has thought of their history, myth, tradition, song and story.
(लेखक गंगा से अत्यधिक जुड़ा हुआ था, क्योंकि अपने बचपन से ही वह गंगा और जमुना के स्वरूपों को देखता रहा है। जैसे-जैसे मौसम बदले, उसने उनके इतिहास, पौराणिक कथा, परम्परा, गीत और कहानी के विषय में सोचा है।)
3. Nehru wanted a handful of his ashes to be immersed in (UPBoardSolutions.com) the Ganga at Allahabad because he had been attached to the Ganga and Jamuna since his childhood.
(नेहरू जी अपने शरीर की एक मुट्ठी राख को इलाहाबाद में गंगा में बहाना चाहते थे, क्योंकि गंगा और जमुना से उनका लगाव बचपन से ही रहा था।)

(3) The Ganga especially…………work have been cast. [From para 3 [2009, 14]]

Question.
1. Why is the author reminded of the snow-covered mountain on seeing the river Ganga ?
(गंगा नदी को देखकर लेखक को बर्फीले पहाड़ों की याद क्यों आती है ?) ।
2. How can it be said that the river Ganga represents India’s culture and civilization?
(यह कैसे कहा जा सकता है कि गंगा नदी भारतीय संस्कृति और सभ्यता का प्रतिनिधित्व करती है ?)
3. Why is the Ganga beloved of the Indian people ?
(गंगा भारत के लोगों को क्यों प्रिय है ?)
4. What does the Ganga symbolize ?
(गंगा किस बात की प्रतीक है ?)
5. What does the Ganga remind Pt. Nehru of ?
(गंगा पं० नेहरू को किस बात की याद दिलाती है ?)
6. Which words in the passage mean :
(a) victory,
(b) mixed intimately
Answer:
1. The river Ganga reminds the author of the snow-covered mountains because he loved these mountains very much.
(गंगा नदी को देखकर लेखक को बर्फीले पहाड़ों की याद इसलिए आती है, क्योंकि वे उसे बहुत प्रिय हैं।)
2. The river Ganga has been a symbol of India’s age-long culture and civilization. So it can be said that it represents India’s culture and civilization. (गंगा नदी भारत की युगों पुरानी संस्कृति और सभ्यता की प्रतीक रही है। इस कारण कहा जा सकता
है कि यह भारत की सभ्यता और संस्कृति का प्रतिनिधित्व करती है।)
3. The Ganga is beloved of the Indian people because her racial memories, her hopes and fears, her songs of triumph and defeats are intertwined round her.
(गंगा भारत के लोगों की प्रिय है क्योंकि उसके चारों ओर भारत की जातीय स्मृतियाँ, उसकी आशाएँ और भय, उसकी विजय और पराजय के गीत जुड़े हुए हैं।)
4. The Ganga symbolizes India’s age-long culture and civilization. , ”
(गंगा भारत की युगों पुरानी संस्कृति और सभ्यता की प्रतीक है।)।
5. The Ganga reminds Pt. Nehru of snow-covered peaks and deep valleys of Himalayas and the rich and vast plains below.
(गंगा पं० नेहरू को हिमालय की बर्फ से ढकी (UPBoardSolutions.com) चोटियों, गहरी घाटियों तथा नीचे विशाल और
उपजाऊ मैदानों की याद दिलाती है।)
6. (a) victory = triumph,
(b) mixed intimately = intertwined.

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(4) Smiling and dancing …………………….ocean of the future. [From para 4 [2009, 15, 17]]

Question.
1. What, according to the writer, is the scene of the Ganga like in the morning and when the evening shadows fall ?
(लेखक के अनुसार प्रात:काल तथा सायंकाल के समय गंगा का दृश्य कैसा होता है ?)
                     Or
How does the Ganga look in the morning sunlight ?
(गंगा प्रात:काल कैसी दिखाई पड़ती है ?)
2. How does, according to the writer, the Ganga look during the winter ?
(लेखक के अनुसार जाड़ों में गंगा कैसी दिखाई देती है ?)
                    Or
When does the Ganga become a narrow, slow and graceful stream ?
(गंगा संकीर्ण, मन्द तथा शोभायुक्त जलधारा कब बन जाती है ?)
3. What is the scene of the Ganga like during the monsoon ?
(मानसून के मौसम में गंगा का दृश्य कैसा लगता है ?)
4. How does, according to the writer the Ganga look during the winter ?
(लेखक के अनुसार सर्दी में गंगा कैसी दिखाई पड़ती है ?)
Answer:
1. According to the writer the Ganga looks smiling and dancing in the morning and dark, gloomy and full of mystery in the evening.
(लेखक के अनुसार प्रात:काल के समय गंगा मुस्कराती हुई और नाचती हुई दिखाई देती है जबकि
शाम को अँधेरी, उदास तथा रहस्यमयी प्रतीत होती है।)
2. The Ganga looks like a narrow, slow and graceful stream in winter.
(जाड़ों में गंगा संकीर्ण, मन्द तथा शोभायुक्त जलधारा के रूप में प्रतीत होती है।)
3. During monsoon the Ganga looks broad bosomed and with sea’s power to destroy
(बरसात में गंगा विशाल वक्षःस्थल वाली तथा (UPBoardSolutions.com) समुद्र की विनाशकारी शक्ति लिये हुए दिखाई देती है।)
4. According to the writer, the Ganga looks a narrow, slow and graceful stream during the winter.
(लेखक के अनुसार सर्दी में गंगा सँकरी, धीमी और सुशोभित धारा प्रतीत होती है।)

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(5)And though I have……….wishes India’s shores. [From para 5 [2011, 12, 16, 18]]

Question.
1. Write the name of the lesson from which the above passage has been taken. Who is the author of this lesson?
(उपर्युक्त गद्यांश जिस पाठ से लिया गया है उसका नाम लिखिए। इसे पाठ का लेखक कौन है?)
2. Why has Nehru discarded much of the past traditions ?
(नेहरू ने भूतकाल की बहुत-सी परम्पराओं को क्यों त्याग दिया है ?)
3. What does the author want India to get rid herself of ?
(लेखक भारत को किन बातों से छुटकारा दिलाना चाहता है?)
4. What is the writer conscious of ?
(लेखक किस बात से सचेत है ?)
5. What gives inspiration to the writer?
(लेखक को कौन-सी बात प्रेरणा देती है ?)
6. Which chain would the author not break?
(लेखक कौन-सी जंजीर को नहीं तोड़ेगा ?)
7. What is the last homage of the author to India’s cultural inheritance ?
(भारत की सांस्कृतिक विरासत के प्रति लेखक की अंतिम श्रद्धांजलि क्या है ?)
8. Why did Pt. Nehru not want to discard the past completely ?
(पं० नेहरू अतीत को पूरी तरह से क्यों छोड़ना नहीं चाहते ?) ,
Answer:
1. The above passage has been taken from the lesson ‘The Ganga’. The author of this lesson is Jawaharlal Nehru.
(उपर्युक्त गद्यांश “The Ganga’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है। इसके लेखक जवाहरलाल नहेरू हैं।)
2. Nehru has discarded much of past traditions and customs because they bind and constrain her, and divide people of India.
(नेहरू ने भूतकाल की बहुत-सी परम्पराओं और रीति-रिवाजों को त्याग दिया है, क्योंकि वे उसे
बाँधती हैं, सीमित करती हैं और भारत के लोगों को विभाजित करती हैं।)
3. The author wants India to get rid herself of all shackles that bind and constrain and divide her people.
(लेखक चाहता है कि भारत उन जंजीरों से छुटकारा पा ले जो भारत के लोगों को (UPBoardSolutions.com) बाँधती हैं और विभाजित करती हैं।)
4. The writer is conscious of, that he too, like all of us is a link in the unbroken chain which goes back to the dawn of history in the immemorial past of India.
(लेखक इस बात से सचेत है कि हम सभी के समान वह भी उस अटूट कड़ी का अंग है, जो भारत के अति प्राचीन अतीत में इतिहास के आरम्भ तक जाती है।)
5. The unbroken chain gives inspiration to the writer.
(अटूट जंजीर लेखक को प्रेरणा देती है।)
6. The author would not break the unbroken chain which goes back to the dawn of history in the immemorial past of India.
(लेखक उस अटूट कड़ी को नहीं तोड़ेगा जो भारत के अति-प्राचीन अतीत में इतिहास के आरम्भ तक जाती है।)
7. The last homage of the author to India’s cultural inheritance was that he wanted that a handful of his ashes be thrown into the Ganga at Allahabad.
(भारत की सांस्कृतिक विरासत के प्रति लेखक की अंतिम श्रद्धांजलि थी कि वे चाहते थे कि उनकी एक मुट्ठी राख इलाहाबाद में गंगा में प्रवाहित कर दी जाए।)
8. Pt. Nehru did not want to discard the past completely because he himself was a part of that great inheritance.
(पं० नेहरू अतीत को पूरी तरह छोड़ना नहीं चाहते थे, क्योंकि वे स्वयं भी उस महान विरासत का एक भाग थे।)

UP Board Solutions

(LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Answer the following questions in about 60 words :
Question 1.
What did the Ganga mean to Jawaharlal Nehru? Why does Nehru call the Ganga ‘the river of India’? What did the Ganga remind Nehru of ? |
(गंगा से जवाहरलाल नेहरू के लिए क्या तात्पर्य था ? नेहरू जी गंगा को भारत की नदी’ क्यों कहते हैं ? गंगा नेहरू जी को किस बात की याद दिलाती है ?)
                                          Or
What feelings has the writer expressed about the Jamuna and the Ganga in the lesson “The Ganga’ ?
(“The Ganga’ पाठ में लेखक ने जमुना और गंगा के बारे में क्या भावनाएँ व्यक्त की हैं?)
                                          Or
why was Nehruji so attached to the Ganga ? [2012, 13, 15, 17, 18]
(नेहरू जी को गंगा के प्रति लगाव क्यों था?)
                                          Or
What is the significance of the Ganga for Nehru and for India ?
(नेहरू जी तथा भारत के लिए गंगा का क्या महत्त्व है ?) [2011, 12, 13, 16, 18]
                                          Or
What were the views of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru about the river Ganga and about the people of the country ? [2009, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18]
(पं० जवाहरलाल नेहरू के गंगा नदी तथा देश की जनता के बारे में क्या विचार थे?)
                                          Or
What do you come to know about Pt. Nehru after reading the lesson “The Ganga’ ? [2016]
(गंगा नामक पाठ को पढ़कर आपको पं० जवाहरलाल नेहरू के विषय में क्या पता लगता है ?)
Answer:
The Ganga and the Jamuna meant a lot to Jawaharlal Nehru. He had been attached to them ever since his childhood. His attachment had grown with years. He had watched their changing moods with the change of seasons. They had been a source of great inspiration for him. Inspite of this his attachment to the Ganga was not religious. Nehru calls the Ganga (UPBoardSolutions.com) ‘the river of India’ because it is loved by her people. The songs of India’s victories, defeats, racial memories, hopes and fears are interwoven round the Ganga. It is also a symbol of India’s age-long culture and civilization which have ever been changing and ever-flowing like the Ganga. The Ganga reminded Nehru of the snow-covered peaks and the deep valleys of the Himalayas which he loved so much and of the rich and vast plains below, where his life and work had been shaped.
(नेहरू जी के लिए गंगा और जमुना का अत्यधिक महत्त्व है। वे अपने बचपन से ही इनसे जुड़े हुए हैं। समय के साथ इनसे उनका लगाव बढ़ता ही गया है। उन्होंने बदलती ऋतुओं के साथ-साथ इनके बदलते स्वरूप को देखा है। ये उनके लिए प्रेरणा के महान स्रोत हैं। इसके बावजूद गंगा से उनका लगाव धार्मिक नहीं था। गंगा नदी को नेहरू जी ‘भारत की नदी’ कहते हैं, क्योंकि यह यहाँ के सभी लोगों को प्रिय है। भारत की हार-जीत, प्रजातीय संस्मरण, आशा और आशंकाएँ सभी गंगा से गुंथी हुई हैं। यह भारत की उस प्राचीन संस्कृति एवं सभ्यता की प्रतीक है, जो गंगा की तरह सतत् प्रवाह में है तथा सतत् परिवर्तनशील भी है। गंगा नेहरू जी को बर्फ से ढकी चोटियों, हिमालय की गहरी घाटियों, जिनको वे बेहद प्यार करते थे, की याद दिलाती है; साथ ही उन विशाल मैदानों की भी जहाँ उन्होंने जीवनभर कार्य किया तथा उनका जीवन गढ़ा गया।)

Question 2.
what was the will of Pt. Nehru ? Describe its main points. Why did Nehru want his ashes to be immersed into the Ganga ?
(पं० नेहरू की वसीयत क्या थी ? इसके मुख्य बिन्दुओं का वर्णन कीजिए। नेहरू जी अपनी राख को गंगा में प्रवाहित कराना क्यों चाहते थे ?)
                                       Or
How does Nehru want his ashes to be disposed of
(पं० नेहरू अपनी राख को किस प्रकार समाप्त कराना चाहते थे ?)
                                       Or
Why did Nehru want his ashes to be scattered over the fields of India ? [2016] 
(नेहरू जी क्यों चाहते थे कि उनकी रार, का अधिकांश भाग भारत के खेतों में बिखेर दिया जाए ?)
                                      Or
What does Pt. Nehru desir: to be done to his body after his death ?
(अपनी मृत्यु के बाद पं० नेहरू अपने शरीर को कैसे समाप्त कराना चाहते थे ?) [2011, 13, 15, 16]
Answer:
1. According to his Will Pt. Nehru wanted that when he should die, his body should be cremated.
2. He wanted that a handful of his ashes should be thrown in the Ganga at Allahabad. He made it clear that it was only due to his intense love for the Ganga and the Jamuna since his childhood.
3. He also wanted that the major (UPBoardSolutions.com) portion of his ashes should be scattered over the fields of India, so that the ashes of his body should be mixed in the soil of India of which it was made.

1. अपनी वसीयत के अनुसार पं० नेहरू चाहते थे कि जब वे मरें तब उनका दाह-संस्कार किया जाए।
2. वे चाहते थे कि उनके शरीर की एक मुट्ठी राख इलाहाबाद में गंगा में डाल दी जाए। उन्होंने यह भी स्पष्ट किया कि वे ऐसा इसलिए चाहते हैं क्योंकि वे बचपन से ही गंगा और यमुना के प्रति आकर्षित रहे हैं।
3. वे यह भी चाहते थे कि उनकी राख का अधिकांश भाग भारत के खेतों में बिखेर दिया जाए, जिससे उनके शरीर की राख भारत की मिट्टी में मिल जाए जिससे यह बना है।)

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Question 3.
Why does Nehru want much of the past traditions and customs to be discarded ? What part of it does he want to preserve?
(नेहरू जी अतीत के रीति-रिवाज को क्यों छोड़ देना चाहते हैं ? इसके कौन-से भाग को वे बचाना चाहते हैं ?)
                                     Or
Why does Nehruji want India to get rid herself of ?  [2014]
(भारत की कौन-सी बातों को पं० नेहरू छुड़वाना चाहते थे ?)
Answer:
Nehru is proud of India’s past. But he does not like many of its customs and traditions. These are very harmful. They divide her people. They prevent the free development of spirit. Nehru wants the people to get rid of all such customs and traditions. But, he wants some of our past customs and traditions to be preserved. They remind us of our glorious past. They serve as a link between the past and the present. Nehru wants to preserve this part of our past customs and traditions. He values it greatly. He calls it a treasure. He gets inspiration from it.
(नेहरू जी को भारत के अतीत पर गर्व है। परन्तु वे इसके अधिकतर पुराने रीति-रिवाजों को पसन्द नहीं करते हैं। ये रीति-रिवाज बहुत हानिकारक हैं। ये इसके लोगों के बीच फूट डालते हैं। ये आत्मा के स्वतन्त्र विकास को भी रोकते हैं। नेहरू (UPBoardSolutions.com) जी चाहते हैं कि लोग ऐसी सभी पुरानी रीतियों और परम्पराओं से छुटकारा पा लें। किन्तु वे चाहते हैं कि हमारी पुरानी रीतियों और परम्पराओं के कुछ भाग को बचाकर रखा जाए। वे हमें हमारे वैभवपूर्ण अतीत की याद दिलाते हैं। वे वर्तमान तथा अतीत के बीच एक कड़ी का भी कार्य करते हैं। नेहरू जी हमारी इन्हीं पुरानी रीतियों एवं परम्पराओं के इसी भाग को बचाकर रखना चाहते हैं। वे इसे बहुमूल्य समझते हैं। वे इससे प्रेरणा भी प्राप्त करते हैं।)

Question 4.
What does Pt. Nehru say about the Ganga and her different moods in different seasons ?
(पं० नेहरू गंगा के विषय में और भिन्न-भिन्न मौसमों में उसके भिन्न-भिन्न स्वरूपों के विषय में क्या कहते हैं ?)
Answer:
Pt. Nehru says that the Ganga is especially is the river of India and is the beloved of her people. She has been a symbol of India’s age long culture and civilization. She has different moods in different seasons. She looks smiling and dancing in the morning sunlight and dark and gloomy as the evening shadows fall. She becomes a narrow, slow and graceful stream in winter and a vast roaring thing during the monsoon having the power of sea to destroy. To Pt. Nehru Ganga has been a symbol and memory of the past, present and future of India.

(पं० नेहरू कहते हैं कि गंगा विशेष रूप से भारत की नदी है और उसकी जनता की प्रिय है। वह भारत की युगों पुरानी संस्कृति और सभ्यता की प्रतीक रही है। भिन्न-भिन्न मौसमों में उसके भिन्न-भिन्न स्वरूप होते हैं। वह,प्रातः काल सूर्य के प्रकाश में मुस्कराती तथा नृत्य करती मालूम होती है और संध्या के समय उदास तथा रहस्यमय मालूम पड़ती है। सर्दियों में वह एक संकरी, धीमी और सुन्दर नदी बन जाती है और वर्षा ऋतु में समुद्र के समान विशाल और शोर करती हुई वस्तु हो जाती है मानों समुद्र की नष्ट करने की शक्ति प्राप्त कर ली हो। पं० नेहरू के लिए गंगा भूतकाल, वर्तमान काल तथा भविष्य की एक प्रतीक और स्मृति रही है।)

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SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Read the following questions and answer them in about 25 words:

Question 1.
To Nehru what was the most precious gift? who gave it to him in plenty?
What did he hope for? [2010, 11, 12]
(नेहरू के लिए सबसे अधिक कीमती उपहार क्या था ? यह उन्हें पर्याप्त मात्रा में किसने दिया ? उनकी क्या आशा थी ?)
Answer:
The love and affection of his countrymen was the most precious gift to Nehru. All classes of people gave it to him in plenty. He hopes that in the remaining years he may live, he shall not be unworthy of his people and their affection.
(अपने देशवासियों का प्रेम और स्नेह नेहरू के (UPBoardSolutions.com) लिए सबसे कीमती उपहार था। सभी वर्गों के लोगों ने उन्हें यह पर्याप्त मात्रा में दिया। उनकी यही आशा थी कि उनके जीवन के शेष समय में वे अपने लोगों तथा उनके प्यार के अयोग्य सिद्ध न हों।)

Question 2.
what was Nehru unable to repay to the Indian people ? [2015, 17, 18]
(नेहरू भारतीयों को क्या चुकाने में असमर्थ रहे थे ?)
Answer:
Nehru was unable to repay the love and affection which he received from the Indian people.
(भारतीयों से जो प्रेम और स्नेह नेहरू को मिला, उसे चुकाने में वे असमर्थ रहे थे।)

Question 3.
Can Pt. Nehru repay the love and affection of Indian people? Why or why not ?
(क्या पं० नेहरू भारतीयों के प्रेम तथा स्नेह का मूल्य चुका सकते हैं ? क्यों या क्यों नहीं ?)
Answer:
Pt. Nehru cannot repay the love and affection of Indian people because he has nothing to repay so precious a thing.
(पं० नेहरू भारतीयों के प्यार तथा स्नेह का मूल्य नहीं चुका सकते, क्योंकि इतनी मूल्यवान् वस्तु का मूल्य चुकाने के लिए उनके पास कुछ भी नहीं है।)

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Question 4.
Did Nehru consider the Ganga a holy river ? Why did he want his a shes immersed in the
Ganga ?
(क्या नेहरू गंगा को एक पवित्र नदी मानते थे ? वे क्यों चाहते थे कि उनकी राख गंगा में विसर्जित की जाए ?)
Answer:
Nehru did not consider the Ganga a holy river. He wanted his ashes immersed in the Ganga because he had been attached to it since his childhood. (नेहरू गंगा को एक पवित्र नदी नहीं मानते थे। वे चाहते थे कि उनकी राख गंगा में प्रवाहित कर दी जाए, क्योंकि बचपन से ही उनका लगाव गंगा से था।)

Question 5.
Why does Nehru call the Ganga ‘the river of India’ ? [2009, 14]
(नेहरू गंगा को भारत की नदी’ क्यों कहते हैं ?)
Answer:
Nehru calls the Ganga ‘the river of India’ because (UPBoardSolutions.com) it has been the symbol of India’s culture and civilization. It reminds of the hopes, fears, successes and defeats of the people of India.
(नेहरू गंगा को भारत की नदी’ कहते हैं, क्योंकि यह भारत की संस्कृति और सभ्यता का प्रतीक रही है। यह मरत के लोगों की आशाओं, भय, सफलता तथा हार की याद दिलाती है।)

Question 6.
What does the Ganga symbolize? [2012, 16]
(गंगा किस बात की प्रतीक है ?)
Answer:
The Ganga symbolizes India’s age-long culture and civilization.
(गंगा भारत की दीर्घकालीन संस्कृति और सभ्यता की प्रतीक है।)

Question 7.
what did the Ganga remind him of ? [2015]
(गंगा उन्हें किस बात की याद दिलाती थी ?)
Answer:
The Ganga reminded Nehru of the snow-covered peaks and deep valleys of the Himalayas, and its rich and vast plains.
(गंगा नेहरू को हिमालय पर्वत की बर्फ से ढकी चोटियों और गहरी घाटियों तथा अपने उपजाऊ एवं विस्तृत मैदानों की याद दिलाती है।)

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Question 8.
How long before he died, did Nehru write his will ? How do you know ?
(अपनी मृत्यु से कितने समय पूर्व नेहरू जी ने अपनी वसीयत लिखी ? आप इस बात को कैसे जानते हैं?)
Answer:
Nehru wrote his Will about ten years before he died. I know he wrote his Will on June 21, 1954 and he died on May 27, 1964. (नेहरू जी ने अपनी वसीयत अपने मरने के लगभग दस वर्ष पूर्व लिखी थी। मैं जानता हूँ कि (UPBoardSolutions.com) उन्होंने अपनी वसीयत 21 जून, 1954 ई० को लिखी और उनकी मृत्यु 27 मई, 1964 ई० को हुई।)

Question 9.
what is Nehru anxious of ?
(नेहरू जी किस बात के लिए उत्सुक हैं ?)
Answer:
Nehru is anxious that India should get rid herself of all traditions and customs that bind, constrain and divide her people.
(नेहरू जी इस बात के लिए उत्सुक हैं कि भारत उन सभी परम्पराओं और रीति-रिवाजों से छुटकारा पा ले जो उसे बाँधती हैं, कैद करती हैं और उसकी जनता को विभाजित करती हैं।)

Question 10.
what did Nehru receive from Indian people? [2017]
(नेहरू जी ने भारतीयों से क्या प्राप्त किया?)
Answer:
Nehru received love and affection from Indian people.
(नेहरू जी ने भारतीयों से प्यार और स्नेह प्राप्त किया।

Question 11.
why is the Ganga beloved of the people of India ?
(गंगा भारतीय लोगों की प्रिय क्यों है ?)
Answer:
Ganga is beloved of the people of India because she has been the symbol of India’s age-long culture and civilization ever changing, ever flowing.
(गंगा भारतीयों की प्रिय है क्योंकि वह भारत की युगों पुरानी संस्कृति और सभ्यता की प्रतीक रही है, जो कि सदैव परिवर्तनशील होते हुए भी सदैव अग्रसर रही है।)

Question 12.
what were the two main points which Nehru made in his will ?
(वे दो कौन-सी मुख्य बातें थीं जो नेहरू जी ने अपनी वसीयत में लिखीं ?)
Answer:
The two main points which Nehru wrote in his Will were:

  1. His body should be cremated where he dies.
  2. A handful of his ashes should be thrown (UPBoardSolutions.com) in the Ganga and its major portion should be scattered on the fields of India.

(दो मुख्य बातें जो नेहरू जी ने अपनी वसीयत में लिखीं, वे थीं :

  1. उनके शरीर का दाह-संस्कार वहीं किया जाये जहाँ उनकी मृत्यु हो।
  2. उनकी एक मुट्ठी राख को गंगा में विसर्जित कर दिया जाये और अधिकांश भाग को भारत के खेतों में बिखेर दिया जाये।)

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Question 13.
Why did Nehru want the major portion of his ashes scattered over the fields of India ? [2012, 14]
(नेहरू जी क्यों चाहते थे कि उनकी राख का अधिकांश भाग भारत के खेतों में बिखेर दिया जाए ?)
Answer:
Nehru wanted that major portion of his ashes should be scattered over the fields of India so that the ashes of his body should be mixed in the soil of India of which it was made.
(नेहरू जी चाहते थे कि उनकी राख का अधिकांश भाग भारत के खेतों में बिखेर दिया जाए ताकि वह उसी मिट्टी में मिल जाए जिससे यह बना है।)

Question 14.
How does Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru express his thankfulness to the country men ?
(पंडित जवाहरलाल नेहरू अपने देशवासियों के प्रति अपनी कृतज्ञता कैसे व्यक्त करते हैं ?)
Answer:
Pt. Nehru is overwhelmed by the affection and respect bestowed upon him by his countrymen. He expresses his thankfulness to them by sincerely hoping to remain worthy of their affection throughout the remaining part of his life.
(पंडित नेहरू अपने देशवासियों द्वारा दिये गये सम्मान व स्नेह से अभिभूत हैं। वे उनके प्रति कृतज्ञता प्रकट करने के लिए कहते हैं कि वे जीवन-पर्यन्त उनके स्नेह के योग्य बने रहेंगे।)

Question 15. 
Why did Nehru owe a deep debt of gratitude to his friends and comrades ?
(नेहरू अपने मित्रों एवं साथियों के प्रति कृतज्ञता का एक कर्ज क्यों मानते हैं ?)
Answer:
Nehru’s friends and comrades worked shoulder to shoulder with him in great undertakings. They shared many joys and sorrows with him. So, Nehru felt a debt of gratitude towards them. (नेहरू जी के मित्रों और साथियों ने कन्धे से कन्धा मिलाकर महान् कार्यों में उनके साथ काम किया। उन्होंने उनके साथ उनकी खुशियाँ और दु:ख बाँटे। इसी कारण नेहरू जी उनके प्रति (UPBoardSolutions.com) कृतज्ञता का ऋण महसूस करते हैं।)

Question 16.
Why did Nehru feel so much attached to the Ganga and the Jamuna ? [2010, 18] 
9नेहरू गंगा व यमुना नदी से इतना अधिक लगाव क्यों महसूस करते थे ?)
                                   Or
How was Nehru attached to the Ganga ? [2011, 12, 16, 18]
(नेहरू जी को गंगा से इतना लगाव क्यों था?)
Answer:
Nehru had been watching the Ganga and the Jamuna at Allahabad closely since his childhood. He had watched their moods all these years. So he was greatly attached to these rivers.
(नेहरू जी बचपन से ही गंगा व जमुना नदी को इलाहाबाद में करीब से देखते आ रहे हैं। उन्होंने इनके बदलते रूप को भी देखा है। इसी कारण इनके प्रति उनका लगाव इतना गहरा था।)

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Question 17.
To Nehru, how does the Ganga look like in the morning and in the evening?
(सुबह और शाम को गंगा नेहरू जी को कैसे दिखायी देती है ?)
Answer:
To Nehru, Ganga looks smiling and dancing in the morning sunlight. But it looks dark and gloomy and full of mystery as the evening shadows fall.
(नेहरू जी को गंगा प्रात:कालीन सूर्य के प्रकाश में मुस्कराती और नाचती प्रतीत होती है। लेकिन जैसे ही सायंकाल की छाया पड़ती है यह अँधियारी और उदास तथा रहस्यपूर्ण दिखाई पड़ती है।)

Question 18.
What does the Ganga look like in winter and during the monsoon ?
(शीत ऋतु और मानसून के दौरान गंगा किसके समान दिखायी पड़ती है ?)
Answer:
In winter the Ganga becomes a narrow stream and looks very graceful. During the monsoon it again turns into a roaring and vast river with something of the sea’s power to destroy.
(शीत ऋतु में गंगा एक सँकरी धारा का रूप ले लेती है (UPBoardSolutions.com) जो कि बड़ी शोभायमान प्रतीत होती है। मानसून के दौरान यह फिर से विशाल और गर्जनशील नदी का रूप ले लेती है जिसमें सागर को कुछ विनाशकारी अंश आया प्रतीत होता है।)

Question 19.
What, according to Nehru, should India get rid of ? [2014]
(नेहरू जी के अनुसार, भारत को किससे छुटकारा पाना चाहिए ?)
Answer:
According to Nehru, India should get rid of the past traditions and customs that bind, divide and suppress her people. They prevent the free development of one’s body and spirit.
(नेहरू जी के अनुसार भारत को पुराने रीति-रिवाजों से मुक्ति प्राप्त करनी चाहिए जो कि उसके लोगों को बेड़ियों में बाँधते हैं, बॉटते हैं और उनका दमन करते हैं। ये मनुष्य के मुक्त आत्मिक व शारीरिक विकास में बाधक हैं।)

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Question 20.
Why does Nehru not wish to cut himself off from the past completely?
(नेहरू जी अतीत से पूर्णतया अलग होने की चाह क्यों नहीं रखते ?)
Answer:
Nehru does not wish to cut himself off the past completely because he is proud of that great inheritance. It is like an unbroken chain of which he himself is a link.
(नेहरू जी अतीत से पूर्णतया अलग होना इसलिए नहीं चाहते क्योंकि उन्हें अपनी महान् विरासत पर गर्व है। यह एक बिना टूटी जंजीर के समान है, जिसकी वे भी एक कड़ी हैं।)

Question 21.
How can it be said that the Ganga at Allahabad was very dear to Pt. Nehru ? |
(यह कैसे कह सकते हैं कि इलाहाबाद में स्थित गंगा नेहरू जी को बहुत प्रिय थी?)
Answer:
The Ganga at Allahabad was very dear to Nehruji since his childhood. She reminded him of the rich and vast plains where his life and work had been cast.
(इलाहाबाद में स्थित गंगा नेहरू जी को अपने बचपन से ही बहुत (UPBoardSolutions.com) अधिक प्रिय थी। यह उन्हें उस उपजाऊ और विशाल मैदानों की याद दिलाती थी जहाँ उनका जीवन व कार्य ढले थे।)

Vocabulary  

(a) Match the words in List ‘A’ with their nearest meaning in List ‘B’:

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Prose Chapter 3 The Ganga (Jawaharlal Nehru)
Answer:
UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Prose Chapter 3 The Ganga (Jawaharlal Nehru)

(b) Fill in the blanks with proper words given below :
 (1) Words : owe, gratitude, inevitably, sentiments
Answer:

  1. Try to understand the sentiments of your countrymen.
  2. You will inevitably get first division.
  3. We owe greatly devotion and love to our motherland.
  4. I can never forget your gratitude.

(2) Words : symbol, discarded, constrain, inspiration
Answer:

  1. Now the people have discarded many blind faiths.
  2. We get inspiration from our forefathers.
  3. Many old traditions constrain (UPBoardSolutions.com) the people of India.
  4. This gift is only the symbol of affection.

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(c) Use the following words and phrases in your own sentences so as to make their
meanings clear :

Words : disposed off, discarded, abundance, varying, gloomy
Answer:
1. He has disposed off all his old furniture.
2. The scientists have discarded many old theories.
3. Pt. Nehru got love from the people of India in abundance.
4. I can’t guess anything from his varying moods.
5. Due to an accident, the atmosphere has become gloomy.

Hope given UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Prose Chapter 3 are helpful to complete your homework.

If you have any doubts, please comment below. UP Board Solutions try to provide online tutoring for you.

 

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Commerce Chapter 25 Organisation and Enterprise

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Commerce Chapter 25 Organisation and Enterprise

Organisation and Enterprise Objective Type Questions (1 Mark)

Question 1.
The term enterprise means:
(a) Risk-taking
(b) Profit Making
(c) A borrowed loan from market
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Risk-taking

Question 2.
Modern business has become very …………
(a) easy affair
(b) doubtful affair
(c) complicated affair
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) complicated affair

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Question 3.
The functions of organisation and enterprise are ………..
(a) different
(b) similar
(c) dependable each other
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) different

Question 4.
The entrepreneures are the owners of business and the organisers are the ………. of the business.
(a) Customers
(b) Debtors
(c) Creditors
(d) Employers
Answer:
(d) Employers

Question 5.
The organisers get salary for the service they render to the business, the entrepreneures get …………. for taking risks.
(a) Salary
(b) Rent
(c) Wages
(d) Profit
Answer:
(d) Profit

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Question 6.
Which of the following items is not the Capital from Economics point of view? (UP 2019)
(a) Fixed Deposit
(b) Investment in shares
(c) Jewellery
(d) Government securities.
Answer:
(c) Jewellery

Organisation and Enterprise Definite Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

Question 1.
Is there no need for any research for the successful organisation? Give answer in Yes or No.
Answer:
No.

Question 2.
In enterprise an attempt to undertaking risk and bear uncertainty? Give answer in Yes or No.
Answer:
Yes.

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Organisation and Enterprise Very Short Answer Type Questions (2 Marks)

Question 1.
What is the organisation?
Answer:
The organisation is an important factor of production and enterprise is different from an organisation. Some economists still think that organisation and enterprise are the same and can be used (UPBoardSolutions.com) interchanging. In common language, the organisation means a systematic arrangement of different parts of a thing to achieve the desired result. In economics also we use the term organisation in the same sense.

Question 2.
Point out any two points of difference between organiser and entrepreneur.
Answer:
The functions of organisation and enterprise are different. The joint-stock company is the most typical business unit in which the organisation is undertaken by a paid manager and enterprise by shareholders. The functions of organisation and risk-bearing are theoretically separate. Organisers supervise and administer business while entrepreneurs take a risk.
The entrepreneurs are the owners of the business and the organisers are the employees of the business.

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The organisers get a salary for the services they render to the business, the entrepreneurs get profits for taking risks and get nothing if the business does not make any profit. The entrepreneurs bear losses when the business (UPBoardSolutions.com) runs into a loss.

Organisation and Enterprise Short Answer Type Questions (4 Marks)

Question 1.
Discuss any four functions of the organiser.
Answer:
Functions of the organiser are as follows:
(a) Sale of the Product: He tries to achieve the speedy sale at a maximum price.

(b) Provision of Proper Tools to Labourer: He provides necessary tools and machinery to labourers and does not let machinery stand idle.

(c) To find out an entrepreneur: After completing the investigations regarding the most profitable channel of investing productive resource, the organiser finds out an entrepreneur who is ready to undertake risk in the proposed business.

(d) The localisation of Production: The organiser locates the production unit (UPBoardSolutions.com) itself. In doing so he keeps in his mind several consideration such as nearness to the raw material and the power resources, availability of trained labour, transport facilities, providing to the market etc.

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Question 2.
Define the importance of organisation.
Answer:
Modern business has become a very complicated affair. It is affected by many factors. Even a small factor may change the entire form of business. Big business firms use complicated machinery which needs constant care. Labourers of varying degree of skill and ability are engaged by them. Thus a business house of today is difficult to run without the expert guidance of an organiser. He brings together the three factors of production land, labour and capital and organises them so efficiently that they give the best results. Without (UPBoardSolutions.com) an organiser, these factors can reap no fruit. Without him, capital will go waste. Labour will be misdirected. Without an organiser, production is not possible in this world.

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Commerce

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Commerce Chapter 24 Capital: Meaning, Classification and Characteristics

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Commerce Chapter 24 Capital: Meaning, Classification and Characteristics

Capital: Meaning, Classification and Characteristics Objective Type Questions (1 Mark)

Question 1.
All capital is the product of (UP 2017)
(a) Investment
(b) Saving
(c) Production
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Saving

Question 2.
By the term capital formation we mean:
(a) Fixed Assets
(b) Capital Formation
(c) Investment
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Capital Formation

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Question 3.
……… and forced savings constitute the two types of savings.
(a) Voluntary
(b) Non-voluntary
(c) Either (a) or (b)
(d) none of these
Answer:
(a) Voluntary

Question 4.
…….. and ………. are essential for making additions to the stock of capital.
(a) Saving, Capital
(b) Capital, Investment
(c) Saving, Investment
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Saving, Investment

Question 5.
Under-developed countries are characterised by ……….. rate of capital formation.
(a) High
(b) Low
(c) Either (a) or (b)
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Low

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Capital: Meaning, Classification and Characteristics Definite Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

Question 1.
Give the name of any two kinds of capital.
Answer:
Fixed and circulating (UPBoardSolutions.com) capital.

Question 2.
Which term is used in the service of money or wealth or property?
Answer:
Capital.

Question 3.
What are the primary factors of production?
Answer:
Land and Labour.

Capital: Meaning, Classification and Characteristics Very Short Answer Type Questions (2 Marks)

Question 1.
Define Capital.
Answer:
According to Marshall, “Capital consists of those kinds of wealth other than free gifts and nature which yield income.”
According to Thomas, “Capital is that part of the (UPBoardSolutions.com) wealth of individuals and communities, other than land, which is used in the production of further wealth.”

Question 2.
Give any two functions of capital.
Answer:
The following are the functions of capital:

  • Capital makes the provision of tools and implements to workers for productive purposes.
  • A part of capital is spent on purchasing raw materials.

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Capital: Meaning, Classification and Characteristics Short Answer Type Questions (4 Marks)

Question 1.
What is the importance of capital in production?
Answer:
Capital has been a very important factor of production even in earlier stages of human development. In the hunting, stage man used some implements to kill wild animals for food. These implements were his capital. Since then capital in some form or the other has played a significant role in the economic development of society. Under capitalism, capital is most (UPBoardSolutions.com) significant. It is equally important under communism. Though capital is not a primary factor of production yet its importance is as great as that of any primary factor of production such as land as labour.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Gross Capital Formation and Net Capital Formation? (UP 2016)
Answer:
Every producing unit has to make provisions for the depreciation of the plant and machinery. So, it keeps aside a part of its profits for replacing the warm out machinery and plant. But it sometimes keeps another part of its income away for buying new machinery and equipment when it feels a need to expand itself. So every producing unit not only keeps its capital intact but it tries to expand its productive capacity through making additions to further capital in future. So, the gross capital formation induces two things:

  • Maintaining capital intact.
  • Making further additions to capital equipment to expand the volume of production.

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While net capital formation includes only one thing, i.e., making further Addition to capital equipment.

Question 3.
Make out the main differences between Fixed and Circulating Capital. (UP 2009, 17)
Answer:
Difference between Fixed Capital and Circulating Capital:
Fixed Capital: Fixed Capital exists in a durable shape, renders continuous service for many years and its return is spread over a greater length of time. Fixed Capital includes those goods which are used again and again for further production. Their utility does not get exhausted in a single-use. For example, machinery is used in a factory for several years until it becomes (UPBoardSolutions.com) useless. Similarly, factory premises are fixed capital because they are used for several years. Examples of fixed capital are machinery, plant, tools, implements, building and other durable goods.

Circulating Capital: Circulating capital refers to those goods which can be used only once in production or those goods which cannot be used in production over and over again. They are single-use producer goods. Examples of circulating capital are raw materials, fuel and goods in process, money paid on wages to workers etc.

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Question 4.
Draw a clear line of demarcation between Capital and Wealth. Mention the point of differences between Land and Capital. (UP 2009)
Answer:
Difference between Capital and Wealth: Capital is that part of the wealth that is used for the production of further wealth. Thus, “all wealth is not capital, though all capital is wealth.”

Professor Benham and Fisher do not find any difference between wealth and capital because both are used for production and consumption. According to these scholars, all wealth is capital because the direct effect of goods is on production of wealth. The only difference lies in use. If, for example, a car is bought for excursions and enjoyment, it is not capital, but if it (UPBoardSolutions.com) is bought for doing business, it is capital.
Differences between Land and Capital

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Land Capital
1. Land is a free gift of nature. 1. Capital is formed through human efforts, i.e., it is a ‘produced’ agent of production.
2. Land lacks mobility. 2. Capital is fairly mobile.
3. The supply of land is fixed and limited in the area. In the event of fluctuations in rent, its supply cannot be increased or withdrawn. 3. Supply of capital can be increased or decreased with human efforts.
4. Rent of land varies. 4. Income from capital is more or less uniform.
5. Land is a permanent factor of production and indestructible. Land does not depreciate or wear out. 5. Capital is perishable and becomes completely worn out and the same needs to be replaced.

Question 5.
Distinguish between wealth and capital. Explain the importance of capital in production. (UP 2019)
Answer:
Difference between capital and wealth
Capital is a part of wealth which is used for the production of further wealth. Thus, “All wealth is not capital, Though all capital is wealth”.

Professor Benham and Fisher do not find any difference between wealth and capital because both are used for production and consumption. According to these scholars, all wealth is capital because the direct effect of goods is on production of wealth. The only difference lies in use if for example. A car is bought for excursions and enjoyment. It is not capital but if it is bought for doing business it is capital.

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Importance of capital is production in the modern large scale production system. Capital is a very important factor of production, so important that other factors of production manpower resources of a country cannot be utilised without capital nor can the natural resources be exploited for the use of man.

Capital has been a very important factor of production even in the earlier stage of human development in the haunting stage man used some implements to kill wild animals for food. These implements were his capital. Since then capital in some form or the other has played a significant role in the economic development of society. Under capitalism capital is most (UPBoardSolutions.com) significant it is equally important under communism. Though capital is not a primary factor of production. Yet its importance is as great as that of any primary factor of production such as land or labour.

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Capital: Meaning, Classification and Characteristics Long Answer Type Questions (8 Marks)

Question 1.
Define Capital and write its characteristics.
Or
Clarify the meaning of Capital. Describe the importance of capital in the business. (UP 2012)
Answer:
Meaning of Capital: Capital generally means money, but in Economics, the term capital means that part of man-made wealth which is used for further production of wealth. In the words of Marshall, “Capital consists of all those kinds of wealth other than free gifts of nature, which yield income.”

Characteristics of Capital: The main characteristics of capital are as follows:
1. Capital is man-made factor of production. Under capital, only man-made factors can be included such as machines, buildings etc. On the contrary, the gifts from nature such as land, climate etc. cannot be considered as capital.

2. All wealth cannot be counted as capital, but only that part of the wealth which is helpful in further production is counted as capital.

3. No production is possible without capital. But capital does not produce anything by itself. Production is carried out with the help of capital and it is rightly said that capital is an inactive factor of production.

4. The capital involves the element of time. The capital renders its services for a period of time. This is the reason why the payment of capital is measured in terms of a particular rate, per cent and per year.

5. The capital is subjected to depreciation. The capital used in the form of machinery (UPBoardSolutions.com) due to constant use suffers wear and tear. Therefore, this needs to be replaced.

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6. Capital possesses the quality of mobility. Capital is the most mobile factor of production. The capitalist can carry his capital anywhere he likes without any difficulty.

7. Capital has the characteristics of elasticity. Supply of capital can be increased or decreased depending upon the situation.

8. Production is possible only due to the use of capital. The application of capital (UPBoardSolutions.com) increases the efficiency of labour and productive power of all the factors of production with which it is combined and used.

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Commerce

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Commerce Chapter 23 Labour: Meaning, Characteristics and Efficiency

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Commerce Chapter 23 Labour: Meaning, Characteristics and Efficiency

Labour: Meaning, Characteristics and Efficiency Objective Type Questions (1 Mark)

Question 1.
Labour plays a very important role in:
(a) Economy
(b) Production
(c) Manufacturing
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Production

Question 2.
Land is a passive factor of ……..
(a) Production
(b) Assets
(c) Organisation
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Production

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Question 3.
Physical labourer requires the maximum use of muscular strength and ……….
(a) Mentally Power
(b) Intelligency
(c) Physical Energy
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Physical Energy

Question 4.
Mental labour can be either professional or ……..
(a) businessmen
(b) employment
(c) administrative
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) administrative

Question 5.
Efficiency means: (UP 2015)
(a) Human Power
(b) Mental Capacity
(c) Productive Capacity
(d) None of these
Answer:
(d) None of these

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Labour: Meaning, Characteristics and Efficiency Definite Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

Question 1.
Is production possible only with the help of labour ? Give answer in Yes or No.
Answer:
Yes.

Question 2.
If the labourers will be educated and trained the quality of labour will improve? Give answer in Yes or No.
Answer:
Yes.

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Labour: Meaning, Characteristics and Efficiency Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

Question 1.
What is the efficiency of labour?
Answer:
Efficiency means productive capacity: Efficiency of labour, therefore, denotes the capacity of the worker to produce relatively large amount or better kind of work or both in a given period of time. (UPBoardSolutions.com) The efficiency of labour is that quality of the worker by which in given conditions in a specified time be produces more or better type of goods. Hence, the efficiency of labour depends on the. quantity and quality of the product and the time is taken for its production.

Question 2.
Give any two characteristics of labour in India. (UP 2017)
Answer:
Two characteristics of labour are as follows:
(a) Labour is indispensable for production: A labourer sells his labour and not himself. In no case can we separate human effort from him.

(b) Labourers have not the same power of bargaining as these employers: Labourers are at a disadvantage in bargaining with their employers because their labour cannot be stored up and has to be sold of lower rates.

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Labour: Meaning, Characteristics and Efficiency Short Answer Type Questions (4 Marks)

Question 1.
Mention three factors that increase the efficiency of labour.
Answer:
Three factors that increase the efficiency of labour are as follows:
(a) Moral Qualities: The efficiency of a worker depends upon his moral structure. Honest, sincere, industrious and sober workers work more efficiently than those who lack these qualities.

(b) Diet, health and standard of living: The healthier worker is more efficient than a diseased, malnourished poor worker. Insufficient diet, insufficient clothing, filthy living quarters, decreased efficiency. A labourer whose standard (UPBoardSolutions.com) of living is low is less efficient than the one whose standard of living is high.

(c) Education: Education is general and technical. General education enlarges the conception of a man about the matter and widens his knowledge about general things. Technical education makes a man a specialist in the work. The man who has received general and technical education is more efficient that one who lacks them.

Question 2.
Write the four disadvantages of division of labour.
Answer:
Four disadvantages of division of labour are as follows:
(a) Disadvantages to Producers:

  • Disadvantages of large scale production: Big producers reduce their costs up to the limit where other competitors could not stay in the market.
  • More use of Machines: Due to the more use of machines, products will bp (UPBoardSolutions.com) increases which will result in low prices.

(b) Disadvantages to Labourers:

  • Disadvantages of large scale production: The use of machines reduces the importance of labour.
  • Disadvantages of use of machines: Due to the implementation of division of labour, the introduction of machines also increases. Machines take the place of men which results in unemployment.

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Question 3.
Make out the main differences between Land and Labour.
Answer:
Difference between Land and Labour:

Land Labour
1. Land is a passive means of production. 1. Labour is an active means of production.
2. Land is fixed and limited in supply. It cannot be increased or decreased. 2. Supply of labour depends upon the population. It increases and decreases with the decrease or increase in population.
3. The land is not perishable which means it is not wasted. 3. Labour is perishable, it goes wasted.
4. Land lacks mobility, it cannot be shifted from one place to another. 4. Labour is mobile, it moves from places of less demand to those of more demand.
5. Land can be separated from its owner. 5. Labour is inseparable from the labourer.
6. Land is only the means, not the end. 6. Labour is both the means and the end.
7. Land is a free gift of nature. 7. Labour is a human effort.

Labour: Meaning, Characteristics and Efficiency Long Answer Type Questions (8 Marks)

Question 1.
What is meant by the term “Labour”? What are its kinds? What do you understand by skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour? (UP 2009, 17)
Answer:
Meaning of Labour. In simple language, “labour” means human efforts. But in Economics, labour consists of those human efforts, mental or bodily or both which are undertaken in the expectation of reward. Thus, labour includes the following two things:

  • Labour can be physical as well as mental. For example, the labour of a worker is physical and that of a university lecturer mental.
  • Labour is that human effort which is undertaken for the sake (UPBoardSolutions.com) of earning a wealth of a living. For example, where a man sings for his own recreation, his effort does not amount to labour. But, if he sings in expectation of a reward in a theatre, his exertion is labour.

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Kinds of Labour: There are four kinds of labour found in India:

  • Physical and mental labour.
  • Skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour.
  • Productive and unproductive labour.
  • Professional and administrative labour.

Skilled Labour: Skilled labour is performed by those workers who have received general education and professional training for a particular trade so that they can solve complicated problem connected with their job.

Semi-skilled Labour: Semi-skilled labour is performed by those workers (UPBoardSolutions.com) who have received no formal training in the trade or job performed by them but they have acquired enough skill to solve various problems of trade by themselves.

Unskilled Labour: Unskilled labour is the labour which is performed by the worker who has obtained no training in any particular trade or line.

Question 2.
What is meant by efficiency of Labour? What factors affect the efficiency of labour?
Answer:
By ‘efficiency of labour’, we mean the productive capacity of a worker to do more work or better work or both during a specified period of time. We know that all workers are not equally efficient. It is usually observed that the labourers working in the same occupation with similar types of tools and types of equipment with the same type of raw materials, with the similar type of working conditions and for the same period of time produce not only different quantities of output but also different qualities of output.

Factors Affecting Efficiency of Labour: Efficiency of labour depends upon a large number of factors. Chief of them are as follows:
1. Racial Characters: People of some races are superior to others in physical strength (UPBoardSolutions.com) and are capable of prolonged physical exertion. Take for example the case of those living in Punjab or Haryana who are taller, stronger and hard-working than the rest of the people of the country.

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2. Hereditary Characters: Hereditary traits of father and mother also influence the efficiency of the workers. For example, the children of educated parents are also usually educated and efficient.

3. Moral Qualities: An honest and sincere worker is regarded as an efficient worker. Moral quantities include the way a child is brought up, his family background, educational, religious and social upbringing etc.

4. Food, Health and Standard of Living: The efficiency of labour to a great extent is determined by the type of food eaten and the kind of physique maintained by a labourer. A large part of the labour force will go waste if a reasonable standard of living for the working class is not provided.

5. General Education: General education enables a person to develop his intellect and widen his knowledge. This knowledge makes a worker intelligent and enlarges his power to distinguish what is right and what is wrong?

6. Technical Education: Technical education trains the worker in a particular (UPBoardSolutions.com) trade or profession and develops in him certain specific qualities and makes him a specialist.

7. Climate: Extreme climatic conditions do not favour hard labour. For example, high rugged mountains and hot deserts impose tremendous handicaps upon the density of population, economic activities, transportation facilities etc. which directly influence the efficiency of labour.

8. Social Conditions: Some people are compelled to continue in the business or trade carried out by their ancestors. Under such conditions, the workers are not in a position to select their profession according to their qualification and taste. When this is the case, they cannot perform according to their efficiency.

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Question 3.
What is Labour? Briefly describe the main features of labour as a factor of production. (UP 2014)
Answer:
Meaning of Labour. In simple language, “labour” means human efforts. But in Economics, labour consists of those human efforts, mental or bodily or both which are undertaken in the expectation of reward. Thus, labour includes the following two things:

  • Labour can be physical as well as mental. For example, the labour of a worker is physical and that of a university lecturer mental.
  • Labour is that human effort which is undertaken for the sake of earning a wealth of a living. For example, where a man sings for his own recreation, his effort does not amount to labour. But, if he sings in expectation of a reward in a theatre, his exertion is labour.

Main features of Labour as a Factor of Production
The main Features of labour as a factor of production are as follows:
1. Role in production: Labour plays a very important role in production (UPBoardSolutions.com) Land cannot produce by itself except when worked by men.

2. Active Factor: Land of its own cannot produce anything unless labour is applied to it. Capital is the produced means of production. Thus, labour alone is the main factor of production and the only active factor.

3. Developed and Undeveloped Countries: The Importance of labour in developed and developed countries is the same. Its importance in undeveloped countries is still greater because the future of these countries depends on the batter utilization of their man-powers resources.

4. Evidence of literacy and technical training: The supply of labour in a country depends not on the number of workers available but also on the quality of workers as judged from the level of literacy and the level of technical training attained by the people of the country.

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Question 4.
Enumerate the characteristics of labour. What are the different kinds of labour? (UP 2019)
Answer:
Characteristics of labour: The following are the main characteristics of labour
1. Labour is indispensable for production: Production is not possible without the help of labour. Even the richest natural resources cannot produce anything without the active support of human exertion. Labour is an active factor of production. Natural resources of a country cannot produce anything without labour exerted on them.

2. Labour is inseparable from the labourer: A labourer sells his labour and not himself. In no case can we separate human effort from him.

3. Labour is perishable: Labour unsold on a particular day goes waste. If a labourer remains unemployed even for a day due to slackness of demand, strike or lockout, his labour for that day is lost to the nation. In this sense (UPBoardSolutions.com) labour is perishable. Due to this peculiarity, the bargaining power of labour is very weak and this is the reason ununited labourers are exploited by employers to accept the wages they are willing to pay. This weakness of labour is removed to some extent by unions.

4. Supply of labour changes slowly: The supply of labour for a short period can neither be contracted nor expanded to meet the decreasing or increasing demand for it. For example, if the demand for engineers goes up, it will take some five years to produce a sufficient number of trained engineers to meet the growing demand. Similarly, we cannot contract the supply of engineers if their demand falls down.

5. Supply of labour does not behave like other commodities: Ordinarily, the supply of a commodity rises, when its price rise but the supply of labour does not always rise when wages rise. For example, when wages rise beyond the standard of living of workers, they will like to enjoy more leisure and the supply of labour will be contracted even when the price of labour (i.e., wages) rises. So, supply of labour does not behave like the supply of other commodities.

6. Labour is mobile but less mobile than a capital: Labour moves from places of less demand to those of more demand. For example, thousand of labourers move from villages to metropolitan cities where their demand is more than it is in their native villages. But labour is not so mobile as capital.

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A favourable investment condition in a country attracts capital even from foreign countries but better employment opportunities fail to attract a good number of efficient workers from abroad due to various difficulties of language, living, habits and social differences.

7. Labour can absorb capital: If more capital is invested in human beings and they are trained well, then labour quality will improve decidedly to a considerable extent. To train a good number of people we require large capital (UPBoardSolutions.com) in the shape of training institutions, laboratories, laboratory equipment, buildings etc. The efficiency of the labour force so raised will depend upon the type of training received. Thus, labour absorbs capital.

8. Labour produces surplus value: Generally, a labourer produces more than is required for his self-consumption. The total value of his product is much more than the wages paid to him. Hence labour produces surplus value. This surplus is kept by the employer.

9. Labour is means and ends both: Labour is meant because it is used as a means for producing wealth. It is an end in itself because production is carried on to satisfy human wants, i.e., the wants of human labourers.

10. Labourers have not the same power of bargaining as their employers: Labourers are at a disadvantage in bargaining with their employers because their labour cannot be stored up and has.to be sold at lower rates.

11. It is not easy to calculate the cost of labour: It is difficult to calculate the cost of bringing up children and the cost of training when they grow up.

12. Labourers differ inefficiency: The efficiency of all labourers is not the same. Hence, wages differ from man to man.

Kinds of Labour
Labour can be classified according to the nature of work and the professional, technical training required. The following are the most important types of labour:

1. Physical and mental labour: Physical labourer requires the maximum use of muscular strength and physical energy. The labour of the farmer, the bus driver, the mason is physical, while the labour of the teacher, the engineer, the (UPBoardSolutions.com) doctor and the barrister is mental. But the physical and mental labour sometimes cannot be separated from each other. There is no work which can be called purely mental or purely physical. The classification is based on the degree of the aspect used.

Physical labour is universally treated as inferior to the mental labour and is paid lower wages. Mental labour is considered to be of higher status and is accordingly paid higher wages. Mental labour is done by those engaged in white-collar jobs.

2. Skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour: The second criterion for deciding the kind of labour is the degree of skill obtained by the labourer. The labour performed by one who has obtained no training in any particular trade or line is called unskilled. He changes his occupation according to the needs of the situation. The second category is that of the workers who have received no formal training in the trade or job performed by them but who have acquired enough skill to solve various problems of the trade themselves. Their labour is called semi-skilled. Lastly, there are workers who have received general education and professional training for a particular trade so that they can solve complicated problems connected with their occupation. Their labour is called skilled.

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Skilled and semi-skilled are terms which change according to time and place. The labour performed by an expert doctor, a good engineer or a great technologist is skilled but the labour of an overseer or a nurse is semi-skilled.

3. Productive or unproductive labour: So long as labour is paid for, it is productive. The labour which results in the creation of some utility is called productive; the labour which fails to do so is called unproductive. For example, the labour devoted to the writing of a book is productive if the book is published, and the writer receives a royalty for it; but if the book is not published, the (UPBoardSolutions.com) labour involved in writing is wasted. It is unproductive. Marshall says that all labour except that which fails to promote the desired aim towards which it is directed and which therefore does not produce any utilities is productive.

The older economists regarded only that labour productive which created matter. So, they regarded labour involved in agriculture and industry as productive and all other labour as unproductive. This was the view of Adam Smith. The present economists do not hold this view.

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4. Professional and administrative labour: Mental labour can be either professional or administrative. The doctors, architects, professors,, lawyers etc. who are engaged in mental work perform professional labour, whereas those who run (UPBoardSolutions.com) and manage establishments and government departments are said to be performing administrative labour. Both these types are highly paid classes.

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UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Commerce Chapter 22 Land: Definition, Characteristics and Importance

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Commerce Chapter 22 Land: Definition, Characteristics and Importance

Land: Definition, Characteristics and Importance Objective Type Questions (1 Mark)

Question 1.
The main feature of land is its:
(a) Limited Nature
(b) Unlimited Nature
(c) Waste Nature
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Limited Nature

Question 2.
Land is fixed in quantity and cannot be:
(a) Decreased
(b) Increased
(c) Either (a) or (b)
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Increased

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Question 3.
Land ……….. in fertility.
(a) similar
(b) differs
(c) either (a) or (b)
(d) No
Answer:
(b) differs

Question 4.
Land is a ……….. of nature. (UP 2016, 18)
(a) Costly gift
(b) Valuable gift
(c) Free gift
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Free gift

Question 5.
Land is the basis of ……… development. (UP 2017)
(a) Economic
(b) Non-economic
(c) Either (a) or (b)
(d) none of these
Answer:
(a) Economic

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Land: Definition, Characteristics and Importance Definite Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

Question 1.
Can the land be shifted from one place to another? Give answers in Yes or No.
Answer:
No.

Question 2.
Is Nature known to be bountiful? Give answers in Yes or No.
Answer:
Yes.

Question 3.
In the supply of land perfectly limited? Give answers in Yes or No.
Answer:
Yes.

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Land: Definition, Characteristics and Importance Very Short Answer Type Questions (2 Marks)

Question 1.
Write in short land as a free gift of nature.
Answer:
Land is given to human beings as a free gift of nature. Since land is not a produced or man-made agent. It has no cost of production and hence no supply price. Those who had acquired (UPBoardSolutions.com) land, in the beginning, had incurred their labour and capital for the purpose of increasing its productivity. Hence, they sell it to others only after realizing the capital and labour spent on it. Thus, rent or no-rent sale or purchase, the land remains as it is, and is available for the service of mankind as a free gift of nature.

Question 2.
How the land is useful in the development of primary industries?
Answer:
Agriculture, fishery, forestry, mining etc. are dependent on this gift of nature (land). Availability of fertile land and climatic conditions, forest, mines, etc. result in the establishment and development of primary industries. In addition, land also provides us a variety of agriculture products, fruits and ail other basic needs without which life is impossible on the surface of the (UPBoardSolutions.com) earth.

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Question 3.
Write any four characteristics of the land as a factor of production. (UP 2019)
Answer:

  1. Land is limited in supply
  2. Land is permanent and is fixed
  3. Land lacks mobility
  4. Nature of land is passive.

Land: Definition, Characteristics and Importance Short Answer Type Questions (4 Marks)

Question 1.
How can you say that land is limited in supply?
Answer:
The land is strictly limited in quantity i.e., its supply cannot be increased or decreased like the other factors of production. Though human beings have achieved scientific progress and their achievements have touched each and every aspect of human activity, his power to add to the area of land is almost negligible. In the same way, the minerals could be mind, but only what is available in underground deposits We are also blessed with sun, moon rains etc.

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Mankind can only enjoy it as and when it is given to him. For instance on agriculturist may require more rains for his crop, but he must be content with what reaches him by natural process. In this regard some way argue that land surface can increase on account of the operation of some forces of nature, which result in an increase in the quantity of the land already in existence.

Question 2.
Give any two importances of Land in Production.
Answer:
Importance of Land in production:
(a) Helps in moulding life of the people: Land play a decisive role in moulding the life of human beings and helps him to choose an occupation. It facilitates freedom of movement of human beings. He is free to move within (UPBoardSolutions.com) the territory of his country. International movement of labour based on laws governing such movements thus has enabled them to select different occupations, thereby helping to improve their standard of living. Without land, this would not have been possible.

(b) Supply of Food and Fodder: Land as nature provide food of all kinds to human beings. Land (forest) besides supporting wild animals also fodder for cattle. Thus land is the basis of all kinds of life whether human or animal.

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Land: Definition, Characteristics and Importance Long Answer Type Question (8 Marks)

Question 1.
What is land? Describe the characteristics of land. (UP 2008)
Or
Give the definition of land. Write its characteristics. (UP 2013)
Answer:
In common parlance, land refers to the solid part of the earth. But in Economics, land is not used only in the sense of natural resource. Land means all nature, living and non-living, which is used by man in production. Within the concept of land are included all the free gifts of nature or natural resources above the earth and below the surface of the earth, which help in the production of economic resources. No production is possible without the help of land.

According to Prof. A. Marshall, “By land is meant not merely land in the strict sense of the word, but the whole of the materials and forces which nature gives freely for man’s aid in land and water, in air and light and heat.”

According to Prof. J. K. Mehta, “Land is specific or that it is the specific (UPBoardSolutions.com) element in a factor or again that it is the specific aspect of a thing.”

Peculiarities or Characteristics of Land. Land as one of the factors of production possesses certain peculiarities or characteristics which are as follow:

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1. A Free Gift of Nature: Land is freely gifted by nature. As land is not produced or man-made agent, it has no cost of production and hence no supply prices. Thus, rent, or no rent sale or purchase, the land remains as it is and is available for the service of mankind as a free gift of nature.

2. Land is Limited in Supply: Land is strictly limited in quantity i.e., its supply cannot be increased or decreased like the other factors to production. Though human beings have achieved
scientific progress and their achievements have touched each and every aspect of human activity, his power to add to the area of land is almost negligible.

3. Land is Permanent and is Fixed: Land is permanent and is fixed, hence it cannot by destroyed. Lands which are destroyed in a war, havoc caused by an atom bomber by any natural calamity like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods etc. too regain productivity after some time.

4. Land Lacks Mobility: Land cannot be shifted from one place to another. Only its products can be transported from one place to another. Thus, unlike other factors of productions, land lacks mobility. But in Economics, mobility does not imply place mobility, it implies use mobility. The black soil (Land) suitable for cotton cultivation cannot be shifted to Uttar Pradesh from (UPBoardSolutions.com) Maharashtra. Therefore, land lacks place mobility. But an agricultural land can be converted into a site for factory, hence it possesses use mobility.

5. Land is of Different Variety: Land shows variability in its composition and productivity. Just like man are not alike, the pieces of land are also not alike. All lands are not alike, i.e., some land is fertile, while others are infertile.

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6. Passive Nature of Land: Land does not produce the wealth of their own, but human beings spend capital and labour on land thereby producing things of their needs and acquiring wealth. Land can be used for the productive purpose with the able support of labour and capital. Even then we can consider land only as a passive agent of production. Land can be made active by human beings and this nature of passivity of land also constitutes its characteristics.

7. Relativity of Situation: Situation of land is of great importance in deciding the prices of a piece of land. Land in a city fetches more value than a piece of land in a village land suitable for cultivation, the price (UPBoardSolutions.com) of which varies with that of infertile or wastelands. Same is the case with a land situated in a remote corner of a country, away from human inhabitation, markets etc.

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8. Most Important Factor of Production: Land is the most important factor of production. Without land, nothing can be produced. Even the very existence of human beings is because of the existence of land. If the land had not been there, the universe would have been avoided.

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